From To Received Bytes Subject
W8ISS SAT @ AMSAT 2011-12-27 23:25 19876 WSR 360 Part 2 12/26/2011

From: W8ISS@TA2BBS.#ANK.TUR.EU
To  : SAT@AMSAT


AMSAT NEWS SERVICE BULLETIN 360.S2
FROM AMSAT HQ SILVER SPRING, MD, December 26, 2011
TO ALL RADIO AMATEURS
BID: $WSR-360.S2

JUNGU
Catalog Number:
Launch Date: October 12, 2011 05:30:00 UTC
Launch site: Satish Dhawan Space Centre, India

Status: On Orbit

Uplink:   145.??? MHz 1k2 (mode?)
Downlink: 437.505 MHz 9k6 (mode?)

Beacon: 437.275 MHz 15 wpm (?) CW

Callsign:

URL: http://www.iitk.ac.in/me/jugnu/index.htm

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=160
[11102011]
=====
SRMSAT
Catalog Number: 37841
Launch Date: October 12, 2011 05:30:00 UTC
Launch site: Satish Dhawan Space Centre, India

Status: On Orbit

Uplink:   145.900 MHz 1k  AX.25 (speed?)
Downlink: 437.500 MHz 2k4 AX.25

Beacon: 437.425 MHz 12 wpm CW

Callsign:

URL: http://srmsat.in/

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=181
[122602011]
=====
E1P Explorer 1 [Prime] CubeSat (E1P-U2)
Catalog Number:
Launch Date: October 28, 2011
Launch site: Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, USA

Status: On Orbit

Uplink:   437.305 MHz (???)
Downlink: 437.505 MHz AX.25 (SSB?)

Beacon:

Callsign:

URL: http://ssel.montana.edu/

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=116
[11102011]
=====
M-Cubed
Catalog Number: 37855
Launch Date: October 28, 2011
Launch site: Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, USA

Status: On Orbit

Uplink:
Downlink: 437.485 MHz AX.25

Beacon:

Callsign:

URL: http://umcubed.org/

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=215
[12262011]
=====
RAX-2
Catalog Number: 37853
Launch Date: October 28, 2011
Launch site: Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, USA

Status: On Orbit

Uplink:
Downlink: 437.345MHz 9k6 GMSK

Beacon:

Callsign:

URL: http://rax.engin.umich.edu//

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=221
[12262011]
=====
AO-71 AubieSat-1
Catalog Number: 37854
Launch Date: October 28, 2011
Launch site: Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, USA

Status: On Orbit

Uplink:
Downlink: 437.475 MHz 1k2 AX.25

Beacon: 437.475 MHz CW

Callsign: KI4NQO

URL: http://www.space.auburn.edu/

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=148
[12262011]
=====
O/OREOS
Catalog Number: 37224
Launch Date: November 20, 2010
Launch site: Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska, USA

Status: On Orbit

Uplink:
Downlink: 437.035 MHZ AX.25

Beacon:

Callsign:

URL: http://www.ooreos.org/

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=146
[02092011]
=====
Rax-1 Radio Aurora Explorer
Catalog Number: 37223
Launch Date: November 20, 2010
Launch site: Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska, USA

Status: On Orbit

Uplink:
Downlink: 437.505 MHz 9k6 GMSK

Beacon:

Callsign: RAX-1

URL: http://rax.engin.umich.edu/

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=165
[02092011]
=====
FO-69 Fastrac-1 Sara Lily
Catalog Number: 37227
Launch Date: November 20, 2010
Launch site: Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska, USA

Status: Operational

Uplink 1: 145.980 MHz 1k2 baud
Uplink 2: 145.825 MHz 1k2 baud
Downlink: 437.345 MHz 1k2 and 9k6 baud

Beacon:   437.435 MHz 1k2 AX.25

Callsign: Fast1

URL: http://fastrac.ae.utexas.edu/index.php

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=83
[07052011]
=====
FO-70 Fastrac-2 Emma
Catalog Number: 37380
Launch Date: November 20, 2010
Launch site: Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska, USA

Status: Operational

Uplink 1: 435.025 MHz 1k2 baud
Uplink 2: 437.435 MHz 9k6 baud
Downlink: 145.825 MHz 1k2 and 9k6 baud

Beacon:   145.825 MHz 1k2 AX.25

Callsign: Fast2

URL: http://fastrac.ae.utexas.edu/index.php

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=84
[12162011]
=====
StudSat
Catalog Number: 36796
Launch Date: July 12, 2010 0352z
Launch site: Satish Dhawan Space Centre, India

Status: On Orbit

Uplink:   437.505MHz, 9600bps FSK
Downlink: 437.505MHz, 9600bps FSK
Beacon  : 437.505MHz,   20bps ASK

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=164
[02092011]
=====
TIsat-1
Catalog Number: 36799
Launch Date: July 12, 2010 0352z
Launch site: Satish Dhawan Space Centre, India

Status: On orbit

Callsign: HB9DE

Uplink:   145.980MHz FM, AFSK
Downlink: 437.305MHz FM, AFSK
Beacon:   437.305MHz CW

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=118
[02092011]
=====
HO-68 HOPE-1 (CAS-1)(XW-1)
Catalog Number: 36122
Launch Date: December 15, 2009 0231z
Launch site: Taiyuan Space Center, PRC

Status: Beacon only

Callsign:
Broadcast:      BJ1SA-11
BBS:            BJ1SA-12

Uplinks:   145.8250 MHz FM, PL 67.0 Hz.
           145.9250 - 145.9750 MHz SSB/CW
           145.8250 MHz AFSK 1200 BPS
Downlinks: 435.6750 MHz FM
           435.7650 - 435.7150 MHz SSB/CW
           435.6750 MHz AFSK 1200 BPS

Beacon:    435.7900 MHz CW

Mode and Antenna Polarization:
V: LHCP 2.0dBi max
U: RHCP 3.0dBi max

IARU coordination page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=108

For more information about XW-1 (CAS-1):
http://
[08112011]
=====
SwissCube
Catalog Number: 35932
Launch Date: September 23, 2009 0621z
Launch site: Satish Dhawan Space Centre, India

Status: Operational

Callsign: HB9EG

Beacon(100mw): 437.5050MHz CW
Beacon(1w):    437.5050MHz FSK 1k2bps

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=109
[02092011]
=====
UWE-2
Catalog Number: 35934
Launch Date: September 23, 2009 0621z
Launch site: Satish Dhawan Space Centre, India

Status: In Orbit

Beacon(500mw): 437.3850 MHz AFSK 1k2bps
               437.3850 MHz FSK 9k6bps

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=110
[02092011]
=====
ITUpsAT1
Catalog Number: 35935
Launch Date: September 23, 2009 0621z
Launch site: Satish Dhawan Space Centre, India

Status: Operational

Beacon(100mw): 437.325MHz CW
Beacon(1w): 437.325MHz 19k2bps

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=113
[02092011]
=====
BEESAT
Catalog Number: 35933
Launch Date: September 23, 2009 0621z
Launch site: Satish Dhawan Space Centre, India

Status: Operational

Callsign: DP0BEE

Beacon(100mw): 436.000MHz CW
Beacon(500mw): 436.000MHz GMSK 4k8bps
Beacon(500mw): 436.000MHz GMSK 9k6bp
[02092011]
=====
CP-6
Catalog Number: 35003
Launch Date: May 19, 2009 2355z
Launch site: Wallops Island, Virginia, USA

Status: Operational

Downlink: 437.365 MHz 1k2 AFSK

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=121
[02092011]
=====
HAWKSAT 1
Catalog number: 35004
Launch Date: May 19, 2009 2355z
Launch site: Wallops Island, Virginia, USA

Status: operational

Downlink: 437.345 MHz ?

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=105
[02092011]
=====
Pharmasat
Catalog Number: 35002
Launch Date: May 19, 2009 2355z
Launch site: Wallops Island, Virginia, USA

Status: Operational

Downlink: 437.465 MHz 1k2 AFSK

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=94
[02092011]
=====
ANUSAT
Catalog Number: 34808
Launch Date: April 20, 2009 0115z
Launch Site: Satish Dhawan Space Centre, India

Status: ?

Downlink:  435.000 MHz
Uplink:    145.800 MHz

Telemetry: 137.400 MHz
[02092011]
=====
SOHLA-1 (ASTRO TECH.)
Catalog Number: 33496
Launch Date: January 23, 2009 0354z
Launch site: Tanegashima Space Center, Japan

Status: Operational

Proposed Frequencies and Modes:
Downlink: 437.505 MHz AFSK/CW
Beacon:   437.505 MHz AFSK/CW

Callsign:

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=101
[02092011]
=====
KAGAYAKI (Solan Co.)
Catalog Number: 33495
Launch Date: January 23, 2009 0354z
Launch site: Tanegashima Space Center, Japan

Status: In Orbit

Downlink: 437.375 MHZ    FSK9k6/CW
Beacon:   437.375 MHz    FSK9k6/CW

IARU coordination status page:

AMSAT-NA webpage:

[02092011]
=====
STARS (Kagawa Univ.) (Twin Satellites)
Catalog Number: 33498
Launch Date: January 23, 2009 0354z
Launch site: Tanegashima Space Center, Japan

Status: Operational ?

Downlinks: 437.485 MHz FM/CW
           437.465 MHz FM/CW
Beacons:   437.305 MHz FM/CW
           437.275 MHz FM/CW

Callsigns: JR5YBN
           JR5YBO

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=99

AMSAT-NA webpage:
http://www.amsat.org/amsat-new/satellites/satInfo.php?satID=121&retURL
=/satellites/status.php
[02092011]
=====
KKS-1 (Tokyo MCIT)
Catalog Number: 33499
Launch Date: January 23, 2009 0354z
Launch site: Tanegashima Space Center, Japan

Status: Operational

Downlink:  437.455 MHz AFSK/CW
Beacon:    437.385 MHz AFSK/CW

Callsign: JQ1YYY

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=107

AMSAT-NA webapge:
http://www.amsat.org/amsat-new/satellites/satInfo.php?satID=120&retURL
=/satellites/status.php
[20092011]
=====
PRISM (Tokyo Univ.)
Catalog Number: 33493
Launch Date: January 23, 2009 0354z
Launch site: Tanegashima Space Center, Japan

Status: Operational ?

Downlink: 437.425 MHz AFSK/GMSK/CW
Beacon:   437.250 MHz AFSK/GMSK/CW

Callsign: JQ1YCX

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=97

AMSAT-NA webpage:
http://www.amsat.org/amsat-new/satellites/satInfo.php?satID=119&retURL
=/satellites/status.php
[02092011]
=====
RS-30 Radio Sputnik 30 (Yubileiny)
Catalog Number: 32953
Launch Date: May 23, 2008 1520z
Launch site: Plesetsk Missile and Space Complex, Russia

Status: Operational

Curent Modes: Telemetry
              Audio
              Images

Downlinks: 435.315 MHz
           435.215 MHz

AMSAT-NA website:
http://www.amsat.org/amsat-new/satellites/satInfo.php?satID=115&ret
URL=/satellites/status.php

Official website:
http://www.npopm.com/?cid=leoca&caid=43
[02092011]
=====
CanX-2
Catalog number: 32790
Launch Date: April 28, 2008 0354z
Launch site: Satish Dhawan Space Centre, India

Status: Operational in range of ground station only

Downlink: 437.478 MHz GFSK

For the latest project status update please visit the Can X-2 web
page: http://www.utias-sfl.net/nanosatellites/CanX2/

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=46
[02092011]
=====
AAUSAT-II
Catalog number: 32788
Launch Date: April 28, 2008 0354z
Launch site: Satish Dhawan Space Centre, India

Status: Operational

Downlink: 437.425 MHz 1k2 baud packet

For the latest project status update please visit the AAUSAT-II web
page:
http://www.aausatii.aau.dk/homepage/index.php?language=en&page=home

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=60
[02092011]
=====
CO-65 CUTE-1.7+APD II
Catalog number: 32785
Launch Date: April 28, 2008 0354z
Launch site: Satish Dhawan Space Centre, India

Status: Operational ?

Downlink:  437.475 MHz 9k6 Packet
Uplink:   1267.600 Mhz

Telemetry Beacon:
Downlink: 437.2750 MHz CW

For the latest project status update please visit the Cute-1.7+APD II
web page: http://lss.mes.titech.ac.jp/ssp/cute1.7/index_e.html

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=78

Command Station blog website:
http://lss.mes.titech.ac.jp/ssp/cute1.7/blog/

AMSAT-NA webpage:
http://www.amsat.org/amsat-new/satellites/satInfo.php?satID=112&retURL
=/satellites/status.php
[07052011]
=====
Compass-1
Catalog number: 32787
Launch Date: April 28, 2008 0354z
Launch site: Satish Dhawan Space Centre, India

Status: Operational

Current Mode: dependant on last received command

Uplink:   145.980 MHz FM
Downlink: 437.275 Mhz CW
          437.405 MHz Packet

For the latest project status update please visit the Compass 1 web
page: http://www.raumfahrt.fh-aachen.de/

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=52

AMSAT-NA webpage:
http://www.amsat.org/amsat-new/satellites/satInfo.php?satID=114&retURL
=/satellites/status.php
[06162011]
=====
CO-66 Seeds II
Catalog number:
Launch Date: April 28, 2008 0354z
Launch site: Satish Dhawan Space Centre, India

Status: Operational

Downlink: 437.485 MHz

Callsign: JQ1YGU

For the latest project status update please visit the Seeds 2 web
page: http://cubesat.aero.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp/english/seeds_2_e.html

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=36

AMSAT-NA webpage:
http://www.amsat.org/amsat-new/satellites/satInfo.php?satID=113&retURL
=/satellites/status.php
[02092011]
=====
CAPE-1
Catalog Number: 31130
Launch Date: April 17,2007 0702z
Launch site: Baikonur, Kazakhstan

Status: Intermittent

Current Mode:  /u

TLM Downlink: 435.245 MHz 9600 bs FSK AX.25
CW Beacon:    435.245 MHz CW

Callsign: K5USL

TLM and CW interchange every 30 seconds.

AMSAT-NA webpage:
http://www.amsat.org/amsat-new/satellites/satInfo.php?satID=94&retURL=
/satellites/status.php

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=72
[02092011]
=====
CP3
Catalog Number: 31129
Launch Date: April 17,2007 0702z
Launch site: Baikonur, Kazakhstan

Status: Operational

Current Mode:  /u

Downlink: 436.845 MHz 1200 bps AFSK AX.25

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=74
[02092011]
=====
CO-58 CubeSat XI-V
Catalog number: 28895
Launch Date: October 27, 2005 0652z
Launch site: Plesetsk Missile and Space Complex, Russia

Status: Operational - CW Beacon only

Current Mode: /u

Telemetry Downlink: 437.4250 MHz AFSK 1200bps using AFK protocol
Beacon:             437.2750 MHz CW

Callsign: JQ1YGW

Official Webpage: http://www.space.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/cubesat/mission/V/

Pictures received by Mineo Wakita - JE9PEL:
http://www.ne.jp/asahi/hamradio/je9pel/xivpicte.htm

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=37
[02092011]
=====
CO-57 CubeSat XI-IV
Catalog number: 27848
Launch date: June 30, 2003 1415z
Launch site: Plesetsk Missile and Space Complex, Russia

Status: ?????

Current Mode: /u

Beacon:     436.8475 MHz CW
Telemetry : 437.4900 MHz AFSK 1200 BPS

Callsign: JQ1YGW

AMSAT-NA webpage:
http://www.amsat.org/amsat-new/satellites/satInfo.php?satID=96&retURL
=/satellites/status.php

Official Webpage: http://www.space.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/cubesat/mission/V/
[02092011]
=====
QuakeSat
Catalog Number: 27845
Launch Date: June 30, 2003 1415z
Launch site: Plesetsk Missile and Space Complex, Russia

Status: Telemetry only

Current Mode: 9600 baud data packet

Mode U packet
Downlink: 436.675 MHz 9k6 BPS

Quakesat webpage:
http://www.quakefinder.com/services/quakesat-ssite/
[02252011]
=====
CO-55 Cute-1.7+APD II
Catalog Number: 27844
Launch date: June 30, 2003 1415z
Launch site: Plesetsk Missile and Space Complex, Russia

Status: Operational

Current Mode: CW downlink worldwide
              AX25 Packet with uplink command over Japan only

Mode U Telemetry
Downlink: 437.4000 MHz AFSK 1200 BPS

Mode U TLM Beacon
Downlink: 436.8375 MHz CW

AMSAT-NA webpage:
http://www.amsat.org/amsat-new/satellites/satInfo.php?satID=69&retURL
=/satellites/status.php

IARU coordination status page:
http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/finished_detail.php?serialnum=78
[02092011]
=====
NO-44 PCSAT
Catalog number: 26931
Launch Date: September 30, 2001 0240z
Launch site: Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska, USA

Status: Telemetry only

Current Mode: V/v

General Usage Uplink/Downlink: 145.827 MHz 1200 Baud
Special Usage Downlink:        144.390 Mhz 1200 Baud

PCSAT APRS page: http://pcsat.aprs.org

aprstlm Telemetry Decoder program:
http://www.xciv.org/~iain/aprstlm/v1.2/
[02092011]
=====
RS-22 RADIO SPORT 22 (MOZHAYETS 4)
Catalog number: 27939
Launch Date: September 27, 2003 0612z
Launch site: Plesetsk Missile and Space Complex, Russia

Status: Operational - 70cm cw only

Current Mode:  /u

CW Beacon - 435.352 MHz
            145.818 MHz

AMSAT-NA webpage:
http://www.amsat.org/amsat-new/satellites/satInfo.php?satID=76&retURL
=/satellites/status.php
[02092011]
=====
LO-19 LUSAT
Catalog number: 20442
Launch date: January 22, 1990
Launch site: Kourou, French Guiana

Status: CW Beacon only

Uplinks:          145.840 MHz 1200-baud Manchester FSK
                  145.860 MHz 1200-baud Manchester FSK
                  145.880 MHz 1200-baud Manchester FSK
                  145.900 MHz 1200-baud Manchester FSK

CW downlink:      437.125 MHz

Digital downlink: 437.150 MHz SSB (RC-BPSK 1200-baud PSK)

Broadcast Callsign: LUSAT-11
BBS: LUSAT-12

General information and telemetry samples can be found at:
www.telecable.es/personales/ea1bcu
[02092011]
=====
UO-11 OSCAR-11
Catalog number: 14781
Launch Date: March 1, 1984
Launch site: Vandenburg AFB, California, USA

Status: Operational ?

Current Mode:  /v

Telemetry Downlink: 145.825 MHz FM 1200 AFSK
UHFBeacon:          435.025 MHz
Mode-S Beacon:     2401.500 MHz

Mode and Antenna Polarization:
V: RHCP
S: LHCP

Webpage: http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/clivew/
MPEG3 files: http://www.ne.jp/asahi/hamradio/je9pel/uo11tlme.htm
[07052011]
=====
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION (ISS) - ARISS
Catalog number: 25544
Launch date: November 20, 1998 0640z (ZARYA module)
Launch sites: Baikonur, Kazakhstan
              Kourou, French Guiana
              Uchinoura Space Center, Japan
              Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Florida, USA

Status: Operational

Current Active Modes: FM Repeater - OFF
                      Voice -       V/v
                      BBS -         ON
                      2m APRS -     ON
                      70cm Digi -   ON
                      SSTV -        OFF


Expedition 30 Crew (November 2011 - March 2012 ):
Commander:                Dan Burbank         KC5ZSX
Flight Engineer:          Anton Shkaplerov
Flight Engineer:          Anatoly Ivanishin
Flight Engineer:          Oleg Kononenko      RN3DX
Flight Engineer:          André Kuipers       PI9ISS
Flight Engineer:          Don Pettit          KD5MDT


Available Modes and Frequencies:
Digital/APRS:
Worldwide 2m packet uplink:     145.825 MHz FM 1k2
Worldwide 2m packet downlink:   145.825 Mhz FM 1k2
Worldwide 70cm packet downlink: 437.550 Mhz FM 1k2
Worldwide 70cm packet downlink: 437.550 Mhz FM 1k2

Voice:
Region 1 voice uplink:          145.200 MHz FM
Region 2/3 voice uplink:        144.490 MHz FM
Worldwide downlink:             145.800 MHz FM

Crossband Repeater:
Repeater Uplinks:              1269.650 MHz FM
                                437.800 MHz FM
                                145.990 MHz FM - 67.0 PL (Kenwood)
Repeater Downlink:              145.800 MHz FM
                                437.800 MHz FM (Kenwood)

SSTV Robot 36:
Downlink:                       145.800 MHz FM

Mode and Antenna Polarization:
V: Linear
U: Linear

Callsigns:
Belgian:                        OR4ISS
German:                         DP0ISS
Russian:                        RS0ISS
                                RZ3DZR
United States:                  NA1SS
2m Packet Mailbox:              RS0ISS-11
2m Digipeater alias:            ARISS
70cm Packet Mailbox:            RS0ISS-1
70cm Digipeater callsign:       RS0ISS
70cm Digipeater alias:          ARISS

Official ARISS Webpage:    http://www.rac.ca/ariss
ISS Fan Club Webpage:      http://www.issfanclub.com
APRS tracking page:        http://www.ariss.net/

ISS Daily Crew Schedule: http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/station/timelines
Remember that the crew operates on UTC time. Also, all of the time
line is NOT translated from Russian and posted.
[12262011]
NNNN